Now at daybreak because it is the Lord's Day everyone proceeds to the greater church, built by Constantine, which is situated in Golgotha behind the Cross, where all things are done which are customary.
From The Pilgrimage of Egeria
We’ve discussed what a pilgrim/pilgrimage is. The next thing I wanted to talk about was the history of the Christian pilgrimage.
Pilgrimages hold a special place in the tapestry of Christian history. For centuries, believers have embarked on these sacred journeys to experience holy sites, express their devotion, deepen their faith, and seek spiritual enlightenment. Pilgrimages are typically made to places that have particular spiritual significance, such as sites associated with the life of Jesus, the apostles, saints, or important events in the history of the Church.
Christian pilgrimages find their roots in the ancient Israelite tradition, where faithful Jews also embarked on journeys to holy sites. One of the most significant pilgrimage events was the annual pilgrimage to Jerusalem during religious festivals, like Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles. These gatherings provided opportunities for communal worship, sacrifices at the Temple, and spiritual renewal for the pilgrims.
Through the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, also known as the Pentateuch), God mandates the observance of three pilgrimage festivals, known in Hebrew as the Shalosh Regalim:
Pesach (Passover): This commemorates the Israelites' Exodus from slavery in Egypt.
Shavuot (Weeks, or Pentecost): This celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai.
Sukkot (Tabernacles or Booths): This festival commemorates the 40-year period during which the Israelites were wandering in the desert, living in temporary shelters.
During these festivals, all able-bodied men were expected to make a pilgrimage to the Temple in Jerusalem to participate in worship and make sacrifices. The Gospels bear witness to the significance of these pilgrimages in the life of Jesus and his disciples. Jesus and his disciples, being devout Jews, would have observed these festivals as prescribed in the Torah, and there are multiple instances in the New Testament that mention Jesus participating in these festivals:
Passover: Perhaps the most notable instance is the Last Supper, which was a Passover meal (Matthew 26:17–30, Mark 14:12–26, Luke 22:7–39, and John 13:1–17:26). Furthermore, according to the Gospel of John, Jesus went to Jerusalem during Passover on more than one occasion (John 2:13, 6:4).
Shavuot: While there's no direct mention of Jesus observing Shavuot, this festival occurred fifty days after Passover, during the period between the crucifixion and the events of Pentecost, when the disciples were gathered together (Acts 2:1).
Sukkot: The Gospel of John mentions Jesus going up to Jerusalem for "the feast" (John 7:1-13), and it is later clarified that this feast was the Feast of Tabernacles or Sukkot (John 7:14).
Given these accounts, it's clear that Jesus, along with his disciples, observed the pilgrimages in accordance with Jewish tradition.
The early Christians continued this tradition of pilgrimage, transforming it with new meaning. They journeyed to sites associated with the life of Jesus, apostles, and martyrs, turning these places into sacred spaces of veneration. The early Christians believed the physical pilgrimage mirrored the spiritual journey of faith and offered a profound sense of connection to Jesus.
The tradition of Christian pilgrimage begins to be clearly documented in the 4th century AD. Prior to that, due to the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, it was difficult for Christian communities to openly practice their faith, let alone embark on pilgrimages.
One of the earliest recorded Christian pilgrimages was made by St. Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine, around 326-328 AD. She traveled to the Holy Land (modern-day Israel and Palestine) where she was believed to have discovered several key sites in the life of Jesus and built churches on them. This pilgrimage by St. Helena and the building of the sites were significant factors that led to the development of organized Christian pilgrimage.
Another major impetus behind Christian pilgrimages was the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, which declared religious tolerance throughout the Roman Empire and also played a significant role in making such pilgrimages more feasible by making it safer for Christians to travel.
Perhaps the most notable early account is that of the pilgrimage of Egeria (or Etheria), a woman from Spain, who journeyed to the Holy Land in the late 4th century AD. Her detailed travelogue, which covers her visit to various Christian sites in Jerusalem, Sinai, and elsewhere, provides a fascinating insight into the practice and significance of pilgrimage in the early Church.
Pilgrimage continued to be an important part of Christian practice in the Middle Ages, with many Christians embarking on journeys to holy sites. Some of the most famous of these include the Way of St. James (Camino de Santiago) in Spain, the pilgrimage to Canterbury in England (made famous by Geoffrey Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales"), and, of course, continuing pilgrimages to the Holy Land.
Christianity has a long and diverse history of pilgrimages to holy sites around the world. These journeys are not merely physical voyages but profound spiritual experiences. Pilgrims set forth, guided by humble faith and love for Jesus, to follow in the footsteps of saints, apostles, and martyrs.
Modern Christian pilgrims journey to the sacred lands where Jesus walked, preached, and performed miracles. These hallowed sites, such as Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth, hold immense spiritual significance.
Christian pilgrimages encapsulate a timeless tradition of faith, devotion, and spiritual growth. From the ancient Israelites' sacred wanderings to the hallowed pilgrimage sites in the Christian traditions, these journeys continue to draw believers seeking profound encounters with their faith. As we walk in the footsteps of countless pilgrims before us, may these sacred journeys inspire us to embark on our own blessed journey of spiritual enlightenment and transformation.